Table 7.

Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Clonidine (14)(21)(22)

Pharmacodynamics
    Onset of action (PO): 30 to 60 min
    Maximum effect: 2 to 4 h
    Duration: 6 to 10 h
Pharmacokinetics
Volume of distribution:
    Children: 2.6 L/kg
    Adults: 2.1 L/kg
Protein Binding: 20% to 40%
Metabolism: Hepatic; inactive metabolites
Bioavailability (PO): 75% to 95%
Half-life:
    Neonates: 44 to 72 h
    Children: 8 to 12 h
    Adults:
        Normal renal function: 6 to 20 h
        Renal impairment: 18 to 41 h
Clearance:
    Neonate: 0.161 L/h per kg
    1 mo: 0.306 L/h per kg
    1 y: 0.310 L/h per kg
    2 y: 0.306 L/h per kg
    4 y: 0.292 L/h per kg
    10 y: 0.256 L/h per kg
Elimination: 65% excreted in urine, 32% unchanged; 22% excreted in feces via enterohepatic recirculation
Dialysis: Not dialyzable
  • PO=oral